Sixth and finally, we need better doctrine, policy, and strategy — to include a theory of deterrence in the context of offensive cyberoperations. As cybertools for attack continue to improve and outpace defenses, we will clearly need to create deterrent regimes to deal with nation-state attacks. Similarly, cybercrime must be addressed by policy and broadly viewed like piracy to be addressed by collective international action. We also need doctrine to actually define what constitutes a cyberattack. We must do more rigorous study and analysis in this space.
One group of Japanese planes, their cargoes of bombs expended, turned to strafe Hickam and Ewa airfields and the naval installations at Ford Island. One of those Japanese pilots saw in the distance an aerial melee that very likely included Welch and Taylor. The Japanese flier reported seeing several of his comrades’ planes falling from the sky in flames. In his definitive account of the Pearl Harbor attack, At Dawn We Slept, Gordon W. Prange noted that the single American airfield to emerge from the battle undamaged was Haleiwa. Some speculated that this was because the Japanese did not know of its existence. More likely, it was because Welch and Taylor aggressively drove off the attackers.