This creates the question you’re probably thinking of right now, with all these German inventors, is “why is it called the French horn?” The origins of the name come from the key that it is pitched in: F (The double horn was later created by the inventors Fritz Kruspe and Edmund Gumpert in the late 1800’s. This process made the horn able to play in both F key and the Bb key with a simple press of a thumb valve). Since the key is in F, it was commonly referred to in England as the French horn instead of the German horn (like the French were calling it) or the hunting horn (which is how the Germans referred to it). This common mistake over time stuck with them and passed over to the Americas where to this day it is still commonly known as the French horn. Musicians at a 1970’s international convention have been protesting since then that it be called F Horn or just Horn, especially since the French had relatively nothing to do with its creation.
The attempts at political stability, at economic control, did not quite work. The new industrialism, the crowded cities, the long hours in the factories, the sudden economic crises leading to high prices and lost jobs, the lack of food and water, the freezing winters, the hot tenements in the summer, the epidemics of disease, the deaths of children-these led to sporadic reactions from the poor. Sometimes there were spontaneous, unorganized uprisings against the rich. Sometimes the anger was deflected into racial hatred for blacks, religious warfare against Catholics, nativist fury against immigrants. Sometimes it was organized into demonstrations and strikes.