[iv] 2011 : http://-/fr/pour-un-developpemt-agricole-et-rural-durable/ 2012 : http://-/RW/kinyarwanda-mu-rwanda-abaturage-bamerewe-nabi-ninzara-kumpamvu-za-gahunda mbi-yubuhinzi-leta-ya-fpr-inkotanyi-yo-iremeza-ko-abaturage-bayo-bafite-ibyo-kurya-bihagije-ko-ahubwo-b/ 2013 : http://-/fr/rwanda-la-famine-guette-les-producteurs-de-riz-de-la-plaine-de-bugarama-prives-de-la-jouissance-de-leurs-productions/#more-2897 http://-/RW/kinyarwanda-fdu-inkingi-irateganya-iki-cyasimbura-politiki-y-ubuhinzi-ya-fpr-yicisha-abaturage-inzara/ 2014 : http://-/RW/kinyarwanda-rwanda-inama-ishyaka-fdu-inkingi-rirakemanga-ingamba-zo-kuzahura-ubukungu-bukomeje-kujya-aharindimuka/
There had always been such marginal and 'outcast' groups, but the growth of the large towns, and of the metropolis especially, had made them not more numerous but more conspicuous. It is interesting that they became the centre of attention at a time when their numbers were decreasing and the conditions of the working classes as a whole were improving. Perhaps it was for just this reason that Mayhew's 'revelations' came as such a shock. When the ordinary poverty of the labouring poor became less problematic, the extraordinary, peculiar poverty of the street-folk and ragged classes, and the habitual, incurable criminality of the dangerous classes, became more problematic. To the mid-century Englishman basking in the glories of the Crystal Palace, the persistence of these types of poverty was a disquieting reminder of the limits of civilisation. For they seemed to be caused not by the niggardliness of nature (famines or the disproportion of people and food), or the cyclical movements and maladjustments of the economy, or the technological revolution that threatened to create a 'surplus population,' but rather by the sheer recalcitrance of some human beings, the willful, perverse refusal to abide by the ethos that had stood so many other Englishmen in good stead. The street-folk were not simply poorer than other poor people; they were 'peculiarly' poor, as Mayhew repeatedly said – peculiar in their habits and values, their attitudes toward work, play, family, sex, property, law, authority, religion. Mayhew spoke of their distinctive 'moral physiognomy.' Today we might invoke the idea of a distinctive 'culture of poverty,' or, in the case of the dangerous classes, a 'culture of criminality.'
DROUGHTS | EARTHQUAKES | FLOODING | HURRICANES | LANDSLIDES | TORNADOES | VOLCANOES | WILD FIRES | WINDS
AQUACULTURE | CLIMATE CHANGE | ECOSYSTEMS | EARTH SYSTEM | FOOD WASTE | FORESTS PRESERVATION
GENETIC ENGINEERING | LANDFORMS | OCEAN ACIDIFICATION | OVERFISHING | OZONE DEPLETION
POLLUTION | ENERGY | WASTE WATER | WATER SCARCITY | WASTE AND RECYCLING
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